When And How To Harvest Outdoor Marijuana Plants

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When And How To Harvest Outdoor Marijuana Plants

When And How To Harvest Outdoor Marijuana Plants

The harvest is another crucial stage in your plants’ lives; in some ways, it’s the most important of all. The harvest makes or breaks your end result, making it the deciding factor of whether or not your entire growing season will be considered a success.

You would be making a serious mistake if you planned on going into the harvesting time without doing the proper amounts of research ahead of time. You need to understand the seasons and the sun, your personal security, what to do to prepare for the harvest, and what exactly happens during the flowering period. Read on to gain a better understanding of these elements of the all-important harvest.

Change of seasons

Change of seasons cannabis

Throughout your cannabis plants’ lives, you have been monitoring a fundamental tool for measuring energy intake and time: the sun. It is the most consistent and important element of any kind of gardening. It will be equally important at the end of your plants’ lives as it was at the beginning. Once the summer is coming to a close, you should start to again keep track of the sun and the amount of light that it is providing to your cannabis plants.

During the middle of the summer, your plants are probably receiving 14 hours or more of sunlight. In the northern hemisphere, the turning of August to September is around the time that the amount of sunlight decreases dramatically. For instance, within the month of September the loss of as much as 90 minutes of sunlight per day can be expected. This is exactly the change that causes your marijuana plants to change their energy focus to flowering instead of vegetation.

If you remember, the process of sex selection involved manipulating amounts of light in order to trick mature cannabis plants to begin flowering. This strong reaction in the plants is no accident; all plants have the strong ability to distinguish day from night. So when summer turns to fall and there are only 12 or 13 hours of daylight per day, the flowering process initiates within days.

Download my free marijuana grow guide at this link for more growing tips

Because of this sensitive reaction in marijuana plants, you can manipulate them fairly easily so that they start to produce buds exactly when you want them to. They react this way to artificial lights the same way they would the natural sunlight.

This sensitivity is also why you should never plant your marijuana plants in a location that is exposed to any street lights or other artificial lights. They require properly dark nights, just as they would experience in nature during the fall. This is why growing marijuana is the easiest in a place that has four distinct seasons. If you decide to grow cannabis, you will soon see that fall is your favorite time of year.

Are you prepared to harvest?

Are you prepared to harvest cannabis

When this time rolls around, you will probably have been looking forward to the harvesting time for months already. You have managed to keep your plants happy, healthy, and secure during the whole season, and now you can reward yourself with a high yield and a good harvest. Just like with any other step in the process of growing marijuana, there are a few tricks to harvesting successfully. You need to keep an eye out for very specific signs, and you need to know which potential mistakes are best avoided. The last thing you want is to ruin everything from a silly mistake after getting through a full season of growing.

The first most important element in successfully harvesting your plants is making sure the timing is right. This requires a careful monitoring of both the weather and your plants. If you are feeling eager and harvest too early, the potency as well as the yield could be greatly reduced. If you are too hesitant and wait until after the plants’ peak time to harvest, the potency will begin to degrade as well.

Download my free marijuana grow guide at this link for more harvesting tips

This is why it is important to keep a close eye on the details to determine when your plants are at the perfect harvesting time. In order to know exactly when to do it, you will need to have a very thorough understanding of the flowering period’s rhythm. When in doubt, be more patient.

As soon as the flowering phase has begun, start paying attention to the sun’s timing and strength as it correlates with the seasonal changes. Use this as your means of understanding when the best time for harvesting is. You should also look at the plant itself for signs of being ready for harvesting. You should also know the weather forecast pretty well, as the weather conditions of the actual day of harvest are also crucial.

Before harvesting, you should know how exactly you are going to go about it. It will always include cutting and moving your plants, but will you move the entire plant or cut them while they are at their growing site? How will you transport them? These questions are generally a matter of security.

You can place the plants or cuttings in sealed bags so that the odor isn’t noticeable within your car. You should consider having a friend drive the route with you shortly behind, making sure the whole way is safe. You should have your drying room ready to go before you harvest your plants so you can safely begin to dry them as soon as you are there.

When to harvest

When to harvest outdoor cannabis plants

The best sign that you’re ready to harvest will be apparent all over the marijuana plant in the leaves and the buds themselves. The physical characteristics of the plant will change considerably. The larger leaves will turn a yellow-brown color which tells you that the marijuana plant is dying. The stigmas of mature plants will wither at the base of the buds, while remaining a healthy white color on top.

Another sign, and one in which there is a bit of latitude, is in the color of the marijuana buds themselves. It is a good idea to pick them at the first sign that they are losing their rich green color. If they turn brown, a sign that they’ve withered a bit, the buds will smoke more harshly. The one benefit to waiting until you near this point is that the resin glands will contain more resin, and some people don’t mind the harsher smoke since they bargain that they are receiving a stronger, more intense high. This is a personal decision and one that you’ll learn more about over your successive harvests.

The changing hours of the sunlight are of course the most important aspect of your marijuana plants’ lives. Plants are naturally in tune to the changing amounts of light and darkness that they are receiving, and the increasingly longer hours of darkness sends a signal to a plant that it must mature. Depending on where you grew your marijuana plants, and whether or not they were started indoors and then replanted, the sun will be the most important predictor in knowing that harvest is approaching.

Some cannabis growers, like those in many parts of Australia, Hawaii, and the southern parts of North America, can often get two or more harvests a year, because the sun provides plenty of light throughout the year. In that case, the marijuana plants will grow large, flower as if to reproduce naturally and then begin again. But since they are already quite large, and have plenty of leaves to catch the sunlight, the second harvest occurs in much less time than did the first.

Download my free marijuana grow guide at this link for more growing tips

For the rest of us though, cannabis growers in areas in which it is important to have your marijuana plants removed by the end of summer and the onset of the first frost, the sun is a lifeline to our finished product. The middle of the summer, which in the Northern Hemisphere falls on the 21st of June, has as much as 15 hours of sunshine. Marijuana plants will not typically flower unless they receive at least 12 hours of darkness a day. Indoor cannabis growers are typically able to harvest more often because they control the light. The trade-off for the outdoor grower is receiving more in less frequent harvests. If you only have a few marijuana plants, it is some- times possible to cover them completely and induce harvesting, but this is not a functional reality for most cannabis growers.

The light and darkness factor works 170th ways though. Some growers will actually shine very bright lights, like halogens, on their marijuana plants during the night in order to reset the internal clock. This is useful if you wish your plant to grow in size and not begin its flowering. In Australia some Sativa varieties can grow to 16 feet with internodes around 3 to 4 inches in variety. Obviously a plant of that size will produce a large amount of recoverable crop, but getting it that size requires a year-round growing season. To get it that size they may need to convince the marijuana plant that it is not quite time to flower, and that perhaps it should continue using its energy toward leaf production and upward reaching.

Another good way of identifying a general time for harvesting your plants is thinking about the September Equinox. This is not a clear rule, however, so don’t blindly harvest on this day. It is a good point in the calendar for knowing when to stop watering. You should cease your regular watering schedule a few weeks before the September Equinox. As the date gets closer, be extra careful to notice any differences in your cannabis plants that might mean they are ready for the harvest. Your plants should stop growing taller and should begin flowering instead. Focus on how fast your plants are flowering and the other physical aspects of the plant.

The most important part of choosing the correct harvest time is the flowering period. You can expect six to twelve buds per plant once their flowering phase has begun after the light has decreased. The rate will begin slowly, but then will increase rapidly (like when you make popcorn). More buds will appear, and the already existing buds will also continue to grow. When you can see that the rate of bud production is decreasing by a large amount (like when the popping rate decreases in popcorn), the flowering phase is complete.

Mark your calendar for one week after the last day of the flowering period. This is when the plants have grown as much as they are going to, making it the peak time to harvest your plants. Once again the popcorn metaphor can be useful – if you leave the popper or microwave on for too long, the kernels will start to burn. Even if there are kernels that remain unpopped, it is the right time to turn off the microwave. The same goes for marijuana plants. Although you might be missing out on a couple new buds, letting it go on too long will be a worse consequence when considering the entire yield. You never want to jeopardize the first few buds in order to get a couple more.

Harvest security

Harvest security cannabis

The most crucial element of harvesting your plants is your security. Don’t let your excitement to harvest the marijuana make you forget about your personal security. This is perhaps the important time for ensuring your safety since you can’t exactly deny the fact that you own the plants if you are caught in the act of removing them. Therefore, you need to be extra cautious in the days before and on the day itself. Don’t inform a single person that you are about to harvest, and on the actual harvesting day you should be extra careful about telling people where you are.

Until the harvest, security is mainly a matter of diverting unwanted attention away from your marijuana plants. All of this changes as the flowering period ebbs, because now you must concern yourself with your actual yield. In this situation, cannabis growers have been known to resort to some very elaborate and even over-the- top means to protect their buds from prying eyes.

Download my free marijuana grow guide at this link for more growing tips

While some will sleep near their ”babies” for the days immediately leading up to the harvest, others will set up trip wire that rings a bell if anyone approaches. If their site is close to home, they might keep a dog that barks a lot outside all night. Other cannabis growers simply watch the known entrance routes like a hawk. During these days the growers are irritable, cranky, and extra paranoid, but with a year’s supply (or oftentimes, even more) of cannabis at stake, can you really blame them.

It is also important to remember that all of the other security concerns still apply and the same level of care (if not more) should be taken. It is not unusual for marijuana plants to be staked out by potential thieves who are waiting for them to grow big buds so they can reap the benefits of your time and effort. The police could also have detected your plot weeks ago and be waiting for you to walk into a trap that you yourself have unwittingly set. When you show up at your site with shears, bags, and a backpack, it is hard to claim ignorance. Therefore it is important to do the following things: pick as secure a grow site as possible, and if you suspect that something is wrong, relax and walk away. After all, it’s just marijuana, it is not worth going to jail, or getting into a fight about.

How to harvest outdoor marijuana

How to harvest outdoor cannabis

Bring sealable bags. And if you bring like ziploc bags, make sure to bring a holdall because ziplocks are transparent (these bags are not transparant and odor free). Cut your plants into lengths that are easily transported – cut the stalks so they fit into your bags. Make sure you are not spending too much time at your site when harvesting; be efficient and fast. Just remember: all that matters is the removal and safe transport of your plants; however you do that is up to you.

Make sure your harvest is done a safe amount of time before the first frost has a chance to damage your plants. It is best to harvest on a beautiful fall day with clear skies and lots of sun. Don’t overthink this, however, as harvesting in the rain won’t be the end of the world. It will increase the drying time only by a fraction, and it will have no effect on the buds and resin glands. Don’t relax until you’re home safely with all of your plants. Once you have accomplished this, you will have very little to worry about from now on.

There isn’t a black and white way of being able to know what your yield will be like ahead of time. You can identify a few signs that will give you a basic idea of whether the yield will be really good, decent or poor. All of the factors that you have already worried about (sunlight, water, and soil) will have an impact on the final result of your yield.

You can expect a few specific quantities. For instance, if the plant is five feet tall, you should get a minimum of between two and six ounces of bud. Taller and bushier plants will produce more, of course. If any changes took places after the peak harvest time, you can expect a significantly worse yield.

Harvest twice per year

Harvest twice per year cannabis

Some skilled marijuana growers are able to accomplish a double yield during a single season. One method is buying autoflowering marijuana seeds because it takes only 10 weeks for them to grow from seed to harvest.

There are some specific methods that can be used to be able to get this second harvest. A successful second harvest depends not only on how well you perform these techniques, but also where you live. If you are in a climate that is further north, your cannabis plants are most likely already vulnerable to an early frost or other seasonal changes. In that case, accomplishing a second harvest will not be as easy.

If you live in a more temperate zone where early fall is fairly mild, you might be able to successfully harvest your cannabis plants more than once during the growing season. It all depends on your technique of harvest in this case.

You can’t harvest plants normally once and then later decide you want to try a second harvest – the process begins already during the first time you harvest. Once you have removed most of the harvest (allowing only the tiny buds and most of the leaf to remain), you are ready for the next step. Immediately start up the same process that led to the first growth cycle that your plants have already been through. Add lots of water and some fresh fertilizer to stimulate another round of growth.

Make sure to buy autoflowering marijuana seeds in our online seed shop

You basically are just trying to get the cannabis plants back into their flowering phase so they produce more buds that you can harvest. If you leave most of the leaves, you will have a higher chance of the second flowering phase to be activated since they are what absorbs the sunlight that the plants need for growing energy.

Because the timing and intensity of the sunlight have already changed, the plants are already in their flowering phase. If you are living in a location that continues to have mild temperatures through the beginning of fall (such as in tropical climates), then you should be able to continue your plants’ vegetative phase even longer. You do this through light manipulation – simply have a light of some sort shining on the entire plant in the nighttime. This can be done with a flashlight.

If you have successfully interrupted their period of darkness normally required for the flowering stage, you will have started the plants’ growing back up again. When you want the plants to begin their second flowering phase, simply stop interrupting the darkness with your light. Keep in mind that flowering takes a couple weeks, so don’t keep the plants in their vegetative phase for too long. For instance, if the first frost or colder weather will be there within two weeks, then you should have already started up the flowering process three weeks prior.

Thanks for reading. Please leave comments or questions below and don’t forget to download my free grow bible


Comment Section

49 thoughts on “When And How To Harvest Outdoor Marijuana Plants

By Sam on 28 May 2015 at 18:11

I wanted to know if I can send you a picture of two plants of mine. I don’t know what is wrong with them the leaves are curling/abnormal and maybe you can help me figure out the problem.

By justine on 11 June 2015 at 07:35

This is my first to growing everything looks good I just need to know if I should harvest now so I can get started on my next go around

By Cheri on 27 September 2015 at 18:15

easy peasy and I am surprised it wasn’t stated on this. I take a jewelry loop and look at my flowers. You can see tiny trichromes which are mushroom shapes that form once in flower if they are clear then not ready. Trichomes look like mushrooms when they have white smoke in them some like to take then says more uplifting . When they turn to a amber color people say more of a couch lock. Don’t let go past when they turn black.

By Jennifer ILGM on 28 September 2015 at 12:06

Great tip Cheri, thanks for sharing!

By latewood on 15 June 2015 at 23:31

We cannot judge as to when you should harvest. As explained; Harvest time is judged by the maturity or color of the Trichomes.

By dennis on 5 August 2015 at 01:21

great seeds great imformation thank you

By Jools on 12 August 2015 at 18:06

Guys, were you stoned when you wrote this? You use a whole four or five pages whittling on, so much so I got bored and skim read it, without actually telling us anything meaningful. Or if you did tell us something meaningful it was convolutedly hidden in the stoner speak.

Please re-write the article in a succinct manner telling us the things to look for with maybe some picture.
P.S. Keep it short too ;-)

By thomas cappiello on 11 September 2015 at 01:56

I was thinking the same thing, way too wordy. Needs to get to the point.

By sondog on 11 September 2015 at 17:24

Get some sort of magnifier and watch the tricombs. They will first look like they are filled with clear liquid. They eventually will look like they are filled with milk. When the thc inside these tricombs begins to degrade the liquid will turn an amber color. I have found the best time to harvest is when around ten to twenty percent of the tricombs turn amber.

By linda on 13 September 2015 at 14:40

I agree, a lot of words with little info.

By KSpence on 3 September 2015 at 16:18

After harvesting, is it possible to use the same remains of the plant in the ground to grow again the next season? Or do you have to start over with the seeds and germinating and such?

By kim on 26 September 2015 at 21:14

Yeah, you can “RE-Grow” the SAME Plant(s), and Even BETTER, the Bigger the “SKELETON” stays, the Better, Bigger and Faster it will be! (U CAN DO IT MORE TIMES!!! but it will become WEAKER!!!)
I allready did it 4 times with One, and only at the 4th time it “SEEMED” to be weaker!!!
You will have to leave as many, Leaves and “Popcorn Buds” (small/medium/big) do it so it Remains as MUCH “Green STUFF” able to Grow, as possible! Because, the More “Remains” or Leaves and “Popcorn Buds” stay in the Plant, the QUICKER the “ReHab” will be!
Give it Nutrients and Lots of LIGHT, as if it was a New Plant, with More Nitrogen and other “Nuts” or Boosters, but Slowly as you would do with a small Plant! ;)
Hope this helped KSpence

By James on 5 September 2015 at 01:13

Thanks for all the info really useful

By latewood on 7 September 2015 at 20:58

It is totally possible to re-vegitate a plant if you leave enough foliage for the plant to heal it self. However; A re-Veg would begin immediately. This would be totally based on climate. If you are in a moderate climate it is possible. If you are in a harsh winter climate, then no. Once the plant dies, and there is not healthy foliage; You must start over.

By Jennifer on 9 September 2015 at 01:08

my plant is outside and it gets plenty of direct sunshine, with the summer coming to a end should I bring it inside? Its just beginning to flower, or can I leave it outside doing the upcoming months?

By latewood on 12 September 2015 at 09:39


That all depends. The plant will finish as the season ends. i.e. As days day shorter and cooler the plant will adapt and finish.

Without knowing the region; Or, “Zone” you live in; It is hard to give you completely accurate advice.

Feel free to join our Support Forum. We have many helpful growers, and experts from all different regions, willing to help out new growers.

By Welton on 12 September 2015 at 15:37

OK live in Michigan and going through first ever outside grow. Plants at 8 and 10ft tall. They have buds covering then but not huge buds. My pistols are still light green. Weather getting cooler with highs in 70s. I’m wondering how much longer I have be for I should cut them down. I was told th hey could survive into October. Advice please.

By Claude on 10 September 2015 at 17:46

Here is the way I proceed to harvest. First, I cut off all the tops of my plants (30 of them) so I harvest only the big buds. I do that for all my plants. Then I take off the foliage oh what is harvested and make a rough trim. I suspend the branches head down and with ventilators I let them dry. Ater that, I cut the buds off the branches and make a final trim of all buds. Then I start over until all of my plants are completely harvested. Sure I harvest for over a month but the results are very very good. When the tops are off the plants, the sun penetrates more into the branches and the buds get as big as the top I previously harvested.

By Jennifer ILGM on 11 September 2015 at 14:05

Thanks for sharing claude!

By Deb Bandy on 11 September 2015 at 17:01

Hi, Claude! Thanks so much for your detailed narrative on growing/harvesting outdoors! You made things so much more understandable for me. My 1st “inground” garden this year…

By Houston B. on 10 September 2015 at 19:03

While I look to your site for growing and harvesting tips, I agree with Jools above that this article is just a bit useless to the average home grower. Believe it or not, most of us are not growing 30 to 40 plants in a national forest close by. I grow half a dozen plants in pots on my deck, and I’d bet more of your readers fit my profile than the other. Also, 75% of California is frost-free, so that has no bearing on harvest decisions. anyway, keep up your good work and remember your audience. Peace.

By Debbi on 10 September 2015 at 22:08

I live in northern with never grown here before so I’m not sure when to harvest my plants.
Please help

By ziplock on 11 September 2015 at 00:09

Read the article again, and take notes. Your plant and your weather will dictate when to harvest. Mother Nature doesn’t give guarantees. It’s entirely possible that someone can have their weather deteriorate into cold and rainy, in which you can lose your crop because it will not ripen in those conditions. So use your head, keep your first crops small, and allow for unexpected surprises.

By latewood on 12 September 2015 at 09:44

My best advice is for you to download…Our Free Grow Bible. Give it a good read, or 2.
Join our support forum. We will be glad to help to guide you through the early stages of learning to grow Cannabis. Then we will help you finish a successful grow. :)

By Harriet on 29 September 2015 at 15:01

I’ve been trying to download the Grow Bible for months now. It just does not download. Please, what am I doing wrong?

By David Manevich on 11 September 2015 at 03:46

I’ve been growing indoor in hydroponics but I put 3 in my vegetable garden this year actually started as a joke but 1 lived and is doing great. I’m in north east Ohio USA and I planted first week of June. I’ve been watering with my used nutes from hydro grow through the season each week when I do my water change and sprinkler as needed throughout season. .I tied all branches down low for security but also for more light similar to a scog setup… I’m figuring around mid Oct for harvest does this sound about right timing wise. Oh yea and thank you for continuous information its been very helpful even to my hydro grows you give us the best info out there that I can find.

By latewood on 12 September 2015 at 09:55

It is really hard to say, exactly. You did not mention a strain. (whether genetics are Sativa or Indica dominant.) From the time frame you mentioned; (early June), This could be just right. Unfortunately; Plants do not finish in exact time frames.

If you are concerned that your plants are not finished, and it is dangerous to keep them outside; Join our “Support Forum” . We have members from all different climates, willing to help out.

By Joe on 13 September 2015 at 05:50

First few amber tricombs are visible the rest milky. Weather forecast has 1 1/2 inches of rain 2 days away. What do you think harvest now ( a little early ), or wait til after the rains and are there any negative effects of a steady 3 day rain this late in flowering stage?

By iknowtrichome on 13 September 2015 at 17:40

You need to start boosting the P-K right now! If your plants aren’t getting swoll and you don’t give it what it needs you will be missing out on her full potential… Also you should defoliate your plants first sign of budding. It forces nutrient uptake to the swoll buds and allows more sunlight to directly influence bud growth…. Grow on….. Feel free to ask me any tree

By latewood on 15 September 2015 at 08:47


You can go wither way. I would not see any problem with rain; As it rains on outdoor plants all the time. I did not see you mention cold being a factor. This comes down to a matter of choice, by you. :)

By Debbi on 14 September 2015 at 18:41

I have been told that when I harvest my plants they say to put the roots in hot water before I hang it.Why is this?

By latewood on 15 September 2015 at 08:49


I have never heard of that in all my years. I shop the bottom of plant off.

By Debbi on 15 September 2015 at 19:05

Thank you I haven’t heard hat before but I was woundering.thanks again

By Bryan on 14 September 2015 at 21:27

Would it be advisable to bring a 15 gallon, 3 foot plant indoors and run MH lamps on a 20/4 schedule and restart them as indoor plants? From what I read above on running a second cycle, it would seem possible to bring a few of these veterans indoors and get a new start. Are there drawbacks, other considerations?


By latewood on 15 September 2015 at 08:53


15 gallon 3 foot plants. Not sure what you are getting at. Somewhat vague overall on your description.

Yes; You can bring plants indoors; B Ut, Why would you?

Yes you can revegitate plants; If that is what you are asking

By :b on 17 September 2015 at 09:35

Growing in central Washington my plant has been flowering for a bit over 3½ weeks any estimates on when i should start to flush and harvest its my time growing outdoor its a blue dreams plant and any suggestions on gettibg nugs frostier

By latewood on 21 September 2015 at 08:05

b on

You have a minimum of 4 weeks left if growing predominantly “Indica” plant. as much as 8-10 weeks if growing predominantly, “Sativa”. You are flowering fairly late in the season.

By John Hicks on 18 September 2015 at 23:03

I’m looking forward to putting all this great knowledge into action… But I have one problem…. My seeds have not arrived after 23days (Order Number: #36091)

Waiting patiently……..

By scherri on 20 September 2015 at 21:05

My question is, if the buds are starting to get Brown in them, is it harvest time, they look like they are ready, but, this is my first time, they are growing outside? Thanks..

By latewood on 21 September 2015 at 08:10


I suggest you join our support forum and find our “ILGM support ticket”. I created this for growers in need of direction when starting out; or , when in trouble, having issues during a grow. You can find, copy, and paste this Support ticket, located in the beginner section of the ILGM Support Forum. Thanks. :)

By latewood on 21 September 2015 at 08:12

And I can say; Maybe you are ready to harvest, if the buds are getting brown.. really need a picture. As a warning; Turning brown usually means dryied out. Hope this is not the case. Join the forum. Peace :)

By Amy on 23 September 2015 at 08:21

I have multiple strains outside. Growing in Washington (about an hour from the coast) Weather is 67-75 degrees high to 42-50 degrees for the low. My outside grow is really green still and leafy, the buds are about 5 weeks into flower. Should I pre trim everything in prep for harvest? Tri combs are varied, clear to cloudy, (depending on strain) I am worried about the weather, it is forecasting rain. I have had no bud rot issue yet, but have had to treat with neem oil to fight off powdery mildew. I am just confused as to when to chop them down. I don’t want the rain/weather to cause me to loose the bud…

By latewood on 24 September 2015 at 08:21


Without knowing whether you have Indica Dominant, or Sativa dominant plants; It is hard to judge a finish time for your buds. Some small Indica can finish in 6-8 weeks. Clear cloudy is early. You do not want the plants subjected to temps of less than 40 f for any prolonged period of time, as this causes cell decay and, death.

Feel free to join our Support Forum for varied opinions and expert advice. We have many growers in the community that are out your way. :)

By Debbi on 23 September 2015 at 13:47

I was wondering is 39 degrees getting to cold for my plants?

By latewood on 24 September 2015 at 08:23

Plants are OK down to 50 f. Between 40-50 f; Plant cells start to deteriorate. Below 40 f; Plant cells start to die.

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