Cannabis Indica, Sativa, Ruderalis, and Hybrids

More often than not, you’ve heard different cannabis strains described as either indica or sativa, with the former being the “in-the-couch” variety, whereas sativas are your “energetic” high. If your conversation includes those that are more enthusiastic about the plant, you may hear a little about ruderalis or autoflowers. These denote a type of cannabis that originated in the eastern part of the world. 

In this article, when I say “variety” or “types” of cannabis, I’m referring to these three groups as subspecies of the cannabis plant. Subspecies are a classification within the “species” classification. That means they’re within the same species but carry significantly different physical traits. We’ll walk through and break down each of these subspecies and give you the context behind them historically and effect-wise, as well as their unique characteristics.

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Cannabis indica

In scientific terms, Cannabis indica is the subspecies of cannabis that mainly produces THC. Indica plants are typically shorter and bushier compared to their sativa counterparts. They have broad, dark green leaves and dense foliage. Indica strains are known for their relaxing and sedating effects, often described as a “body high.”

Indica cannabis strains generally have a higher CBD content and lower THC levels than sativa strains. This composition contributes to the more calming and physical effects associated with indica varieties. You can generally notice the differences in the plant; the leaves are broad for indica and narrow for sativa.

Broad indica leaf
Broad indica leaf

History of cannabis indica

The history of Cannabis indica dates back thousands of years. It is believed to have originated in the Hindu Kush region, which spans parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. Indigenous communities in these areas have a long-standing tradition of utilizing Cannabis indica for various purposes. Historically, it was primarily cultivated for its resin, which contains cannabinoids and terpenes with medicinal properties. These countries would primarily harvest the trichomes from the plants by making hashish. 

The Chinese recognized the plant’s therapeutic properties and incorporated it into their traditional medicine practices. Cannabis addressed a wide range of illnesses and discomforts, including pain relief, inflammation reduction, and digestive issues. The Chinese also employed cannabis for its potential calming and sedative effects, making it beneficial for conditions related to anxiety and insomnia. 

Charas in hand
Hands covered in charas from a marijuana plant

In 1785 a French botanist, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, was given a cannabis strain from India. It had so many distinctly different features from Cannabis sativa that he felt compelled to coin the terminology Cannabis Indica.

Recognizing an indica plant

Here are some key traits and needs of indica plants:

  • Flowering time: Indica cultivars generally have a shorter flowering time than sativa cultivars, making them attractive to growers seeking more or faster harvests. They typically take 8-9 weeks during flower to mature fully. 
  • Odor and terpene profile: Indica plants can emit a diverse range of aromas, including earthy, musky, or sweet scents. The terpene profile of indica cultivars contributes to their distinct fragrance and potential therapeutic properties.
  • Physical attributes: Indica marijuana strains are known to have a broader leaf structure and a shorter height than their sativa counterparts. 
  • Climate and growing conditions: Indica plants have broader adaptability to various climates and growing conditions, making them suitable for indoor and outdoor cultivation. They can thrive in cooler temperatures and naturally resist certain pests and diseases. They also thrive on shorter amounts of sunlight during flower than other cannabis varieties. 
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Effects of consuming indica

Indica cultivars are known for their distinct effects, providing a relaxing and soothing experience. When consuming Indica, individuals often feel deep relaxation and calmness, sometimes described as a “body high.” This relaxation can be so profound that it may lead to a sensation commonly called “couch lock.” This effect describes a feeling of being comfortably settled and less inclined to engage in physical activities. While not present in all indica cultivars, appetite stimulation is a commonly associated effect of this subspecies.

Indica cultivars are often associated with their potential to induce sleepiness or a sense of drowsiness. This effect is due to specific compounds, such as certain terpenes and cannabinoids, including myrcene and various cannabinoids, which are believed to contribute to the sedating effects. These compounds interact with receptors in the body’s endocannabinoid system, promoting relaxation and potentially aiding in sleep.

People often wonder about “pure” indica or sativa cultivars and whether they’ll be able to find them. The short answer is yes, ILGM carries indica seeds like Pure indica, Afghan, and Hindu Kush, which carry very strong indica genetics. 

The longer answer is that, with breeding and the propagation of different genetics, “pure” sativas and indicas are either a rarity or don’t exist anymore. Landrace genetics are the closest thing to “pure” that exists. In terms of the “strongest indica,” a cultivar called “Crippy” seems to have been pheno hunted in Hawaii, brought to Florida by surfers, and became the legendary OG Kush. Crippy is supposedly so potent that its effects and potency rival any cannabis extract or concentrate!

Cannabis sativa

In scientific terms, Cannabis sativa is the subspecies of cannabis commonly recognized as hemp, but modern-day terms categorize sativa based on the effects it gives when consuming it. The term “sativa” comes from the Latin word sativum, meaning cultivated. Sativa plants typically exhibit taller and more elongated growth patterns than their indica counterparts. They have narrow, light green leaves and plenty of space between stalks and leaves. 

Sativa cultivars are renowned for their uplifting and energizing effects, often described as a “head high.” Sativa cultivars generally have high levels of THC and produce long, narrow, trichome-covered nugs. This composition contributes to the more stimulating and psychoactive effects associated with sativa varieties. One noticeable distinction between the two subspecies is the leaf shape, with sativa leaves being narrow compared to the broad leaves of indica.

Leaf of a Sativa plant
Sativa leaf

History of cannabis sativa

Originating in equatorial regions like Southeast Asia, Central America, and Africa, native residents cultivated sativa for thousands of years. We know where these different strains came from due to the different names of landrace cultivars, including Acapulco Gold, Colombian Gold, Panama Red, Thai, and Durban Poison. Sativa cultivars played a vital role in various cultures, serving purposes ranging from fiber production to traditional medicine. Sativa’s versatile properties and ability to thrive in diverse climates led to widespread cultivation and trade across different civilizations.

In various cultures, cannabis helped promote blood circulation and improve overall well-being. Sativa was also used in Ayurvedic medicines (the traditional Hindu system of medicine).

In 1753, the renowned Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus, known as the father of binomial nomenclature (scientific naming conventions), gave the name Cannabis Sativa to the plant. At the time, Linnaeus encountered various hemp varieties and classified them collectively as cannabis sativa. 

Later, the distinction between indica and sativa was established through the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. Lamarck’s contribution brought clarity to the classification, delineating the two subspecies.

Portraits of Carolus Linnaeus and Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck
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Recognizing a sativa plant

Here are some key traits and needs of sativa cannabis plants:

  • Flowering time: sativa cultivars generally have a longer flowering time than indica cultivars. They typically require around 10-16 weeks to fully mature and develop their buds during the flowering stage. This longer flowering period is important to consider when planning cultivation timelines.
  • Odor and terpene profile: sativa plants can exhibit a wide range of aromatic profiles, with scents ranging from fruity and citrusy to spicy and floral. The terpene profile of sativa cultivars contributes to their distinct fragrance, which can vary greatly between different cultivars.
  • Physical attributes: sativa plants tend to have a narrow leaf structure and can reach significant heights compared to indica varieties. They often exhibit elongated branches and sparse foliage, allowing for better light penetration and air circulation.
  • Climate and growing conditions: sativa plants are typically better suited for warmer, tropical climates and thrive in regions with longer summers and abundant sunlight. They require a longer period of vegetative growth and can benefit from higher light intensity during both the vegetative and flowering stages. Indoor growers may need extra space to accommodate these plants.
Sativa and indica plant
An Indica plant (short/bushy) and a Sativa (long) plant side-by-side

Effects of consuming sativa

Consuming sativa cannabis is often associated with an invigorating and uplifting high. The effects of a sativa cultivar can vary between individuals, but generally, it tends to produce a cerebral and energetic experience. Rather than inducing drowsiness, sativa cultivars are known for their potential to provide a more uplifting and stimulating effect. The characteristic energizing properties of sativa cultivars can be attributed to the presence of certain cannabinoids and terpenes, which contribute to increased focus, creativity, and a sense of well-being. While cannabis cultivars can affect appetite differently from person to person, sativa cultivars are less commonly associated with intense hunger or the “munchies” effect, probably due to higher amounts of THCV present in sativas.

Although there aren’t necessarily any “pure” landraces, there are sativa weed strains with close ties to a landrace ancestor. Durban Poison is a seed stock that originated in South Africa. Not only does ILGM carry this powerful sativa; we also carry one of its descendants, the ever-so-famous Girl Scout Cookies. The strongest known sativa is Original Haze, and it is a unique sativa to cultivate. Some versions can take as long as 120 days to complete their flower cycle.

Cannabis ruderalis

Cannabis ruderalis is an interesting subspecies of the cannabis plant with unique characteristics that set it apart from Indica and Sativa varieties. Although we’ve covered detailed articles about cannabis ruderalis, let’s take a fresh and condensed look at its history, plant traits, and usage.


Cannabis Ruderalis originates in regions with harsh climates, such as Siberia and Eastern Europe. Russian botanist Dmitri Yanischewski initially discovered ruderalis growing wild in these areas, adapting to survive in challenging environments. Over time, breeders and enthusiasts recognized its distinct auto-flowering trait, leading to autoflowering cultivars’ development.

Read our article on the history of how autoflowers were created!

Portrait of Dmitri Yanishevski

Plant Traits

Ruderalis plants are typically smaller than Indica and Sativa varieties, reaching heights of 1 to 2.5 feet (30 to 75 cm). They have slender leaves and sparse foliage, allowing for better light penetration. One of the key features of Ruderalis is its ability to flower regardless of light exposure, meaning it transitions from the vegetative stage to the flowering stage based on age rather than light cycles. This unique trait has revolutionized cannabis cultivation, enabling faster and more flexible harvests.

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While Ruderalis cultivars are not as well-known for their recreational potency due to their low THC content, they play a crucial role in breeding autoflower cultivars. By incorporating ruderalis genetics, breeders can create hybrids that lack photosensitivity when changing from vegetative phases to flower. 

Initially considered novel and lacking quality, these autoflower cultivars have gained popularity among growers seeking quicker harvests and greater flexibility in cultivation. All this to say, ruderalis isn’t necessarily a staple in anyone’s garden aside from breeders looking to make autoflowering varietals.

Recognizing a ruderalis plant

Ruderalis plants are short and squat, usually never growing taller than 2.50 feet (0.76 meters). Their leaves are more sparse than their sativa and indica counterparts and can usually be denoted as having fewer “blades” than other subspecies of cannabis. 

Image of a Ruderalis plant
A typical Ruderalis plant

Effects of cannabis ruderalis

Due to their high-CBD and low-THC nature, ruderalis plants are touted for their anti-inflammatory and anti-epilepsy qualities. Smoking cannabis ruderalis is described as calming and relaxing but not very strong in the psychoactive department. However, few people would consider consuming ruderalis flowers due to their limited availability and the small size of their flowers. 

Hybrid weed

Hybrid cannabis is a term that popped up when growers began crossing varietals to find new traits in their cannabis plants. Most of the cannabis these days are hybrids. Hybrid strains can possess qualities inherited from indica and sativa lineages, such as a balance between relaxing and uplifting effects.

History of hybrid weed

Many believe Skunk #1 was the first hybrid cannabis with seeds for public consumption. Sacred Seeds, a collective of growers in Northern California, take the credit for bringing the first hybrid seeds into commercial production in the mid-1970s. The cultivar crosses Afghani, Colombian Gold, and Alcapulco Gold to make the powerful musky smell of Skunk #1. 

I mentioned that most of the cannabis available today are hybrids,  and that’s due to growers looking for plants that have a heavy yield, a short flower time, and are easy to train. If growers only had access to landraces, there wouldn’t be as many varieties with different traits. We’d all have Alcapulco Gold, Panama Red, and Durban Poison!


Cannabis is dioecious, which means it has male and female reproductive organs on separate plants. When it comes to cultivation, growers tend to focus on female plants because they produce the buds we all know and love. Males, on the other hand, produce pollen which can be used on a female plant to create seeds. 

When you grow a seed, you have an even likelihood of getting a male or a female plant. Breeders will look for certain characteristics in a plant to breed with and create new hybrid cultivars to exhibit those desirable traits along with different effects, sizes, smells, flowering times, and anything else a breeder may be interested in passing on to a plant.

What is F1 F2 F3 S1, etc?

When you look into breeding definitions, you’ll see a lot of letters and numbers… what do they mean?

F1’s, F2’s, and F3’s denote familial generations, which are generations of offspring from controlled reproduction. Say that you have a Cultivar X and Cultivar Y; these two would be considered F1’s. Their offspring would be regarded as F2’s, a hybrid of its first-generation parents. Crossing that hybrid with one of the F1 Cultivars would produce your F3 generation.

On the other hand, S1 refers to the first generation of offspring resulting from self-pollination or selfing. In this process, a female plant is pollinated with its own pollen, producing genetically identical or very similar seeds to the parent plant. Selfed plants also produce feminized seeds, meaning that all of its seeds will produce female plants. S1’s are often used for stabilizing desired traits, allowing breeders to isolate and propagate specific characteristics from a single source.

This ‘stabilizing’ ensures that the traits the breeder selects for are also present in future generations of that specific cultivar. 

Grow differences: indica vs. sativa

When it comes to growing cannabis, indica and sativa plants have notable differences:

  • Indicas are generally easier to cultivate due to their shorter flowering time and compact size, while sativas can be more challenging with their longer flowering period and taller structure. 
  • Indicas tend to produce denser buds, while sativas are known for potentially higher yields. 
  • Indicas prefer slightly cooler temperatures, while sativas thrive in slightly warmer conditions. 

These factors should be considered when developing your cultivation area or deciding which genetics to grow.

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Do the terms indica and sativa still matter?

The categorization of cannabis cultivars into indica and sativa has been a long-standing practice in the industry. Still, there is an ongoing debate about the validity and relevance of these terms. While indica and sativa have historically described plant morphology and effects, science has shown more and more that these distinctions are not consistently accurate. 

Many modern cannabis cultivars are hybridized, resulting from extensive crossbreeding and genetic manipulation. As a result, the effects of a cultivar cannot be reliably predicted solely based on its classification as indica or sativa. The terpene profile and cannabinoid content are more significant in determining a particular cultivar’s effects and therapeutic potential.

A better approach to categorizing cannabis is to focus on the chemical composition (also known as a chemotype) and specific properties of individual cultivars. The cannabinoid profile, which includes THC, CBD, CBN, CBG, and other cannabinoids, along with the terpene profile, are key factors contributing to a cultivar’s effects. 

These properties work together to produce what’s known as “The Entourage Effect.” This effect explains why it’s best to consume the full spectrum of the cannabis plant’s chemical compounds together to gain its benefits and effects.

By understanding the unique combination of cannabinoids and terpenes in a cultivar, consumers can make more informed choices based on their desired outcomes, whether relaxation, pain relief, or creativity. Additionally, considering these compounds’ specific ratios and concentrations allows for a more precise understanding of the cultivar’s potential benefits and effects rather than relying solely on broad categories such as indica or sativa.

Avatar for Nigel Deez

Nigel Deez

Cannabis Cultivation Expert

Working in America's legal cannabis industry for the past 6 years, Nigel Deez bring various experiences to the table. Startin ... See profile

63 comments on “Cannabis Indica, Sativa, Ruderalis, and Hybrids”

  1. I grew 3 plants from your site this year. Banana Kush, Sour Diesel & Durban Passion( Poison?). I’m looking for the skunkyiest, tastiest banana size buds. I haven’t found it yet. Can you help? prefer a healthy amount of cbd. 😉

    • Hi there Jay,

      Thanks for checking out ILGM!

      Unfortunately, we don’t carry this specific strain at the moment, but we probably have something that’s very similar though! Just take a look in our store and use the filters to narrow your search down 🙂

      Enjoy exploring! 🙂

  2. I Bought super Skunk late last year in June out of 20 seeds 3 Plants made it and are now just star to bud im Happy i just Recently Purchased Some indica Purple kush for in door

  3. I’m old school and come from smoking in the 90’s when you didn’t have a choice of what type of weed you got in your 20 sack. Now I know the difference between the three types of marijuana, I’m am inquiring on all the different types that are within each category. Could you send me that info or explain to me what the difference is when buying. For example, why would I choose one over the other in stavia? Or one over like 10 different indica’s? I want a bag of Stavia and a bag of Indica. But what one of each type?
    -thanks in advance

  4. Robert, like yourself I to truly Love Growing Marijuana. Your grow guides read like a best selling novel, jam packed with useful information and knowledge that’s just not found anywhere. I “asked” Ed many time’s for how to information that’s contained in your journals, to no avail. I’m happy to say I’ve put all that information to good use and currently have a Harem of 4, yeah 4 different strains currently growing. OG Kush, Skywalker, White Widow, & Banana Kush, needless to say it wouldn’t be possible without your journals, and a lot of work. Well work is a bit harsh, more like time, energy, sweat, an even a few tears. Plus all the information gleaned from your journals, and seeds, can’t forget your vast inventory of seeds. Thanks Mr. Bergman, my grow wouldn’t be as successful with out your Love Of Growing Marijuana, and passing along your knowledge. Nothing makes me happier than hanging out with my virgin girls, knowing any problems can be solved by checking out your journals.

  5. Alrighty dude i’m actually a little confused. 1st: u stated that sativas r usually higher in cannibinoids than indicas. If so then Y is it that indicas r the more resinous variety? Does this mean that each trichome of sativa packs a more densely concentrated amount of cannibinoids or is it simply because of the different “type” of cannibinoids?
    2nd: this is where i’m really confused. I used to believe that if a female plant self-pollinated then the seeds were keepers. Now for the longest time i have been hearing that u can’t trust the seeds to b anything other than hermies, unless intentionally induced by using things like colloidal silver. So WTF?

  6. I tried to order from here and all I got was my card was declined, so I can’t say I had a good experience with this

  7. Very intrigued… I bought GDP from a dispensary in Colorado Springs and found a couple of seeds. Two were underdeveloped and one full grown. I sprouted it and grew it. My best grow, however, once I put it in flower it showed male traits. It grew straight male, no female traits whatsoever… Will the pollen carry straight GDP traits if I try crossing with other strains (want to cross with female SSH, PH, and or Sour D)? What might be the traits ratio? Hoping to gather female seeds

  8. Hi
    Not sure about your thoughts on the strength of sativa. Havi g smoked sativa in Afghanistan, pakistan, india, Thailand, load, Cambodia, etc. You do get very stoned, and the high is invigorating, even at times more than I have with Indica

  9. Although I don’t grow personally, I particularly appreciate the information on the medicinal benifits of both THC & CBD. Thanks to your input, my wife, who currently suffers a severe case of anxiety, is now willing to consider cannabis as an option of treatment. Just wanna say thanks & keep up the good work.

  10. The enhancement your attitude offers to the grow idealism as a whole is absolutely admirable. I personally thank you for the great work you do. Enhancing such a worthwhile endeavor must be hugely rewarding.

  11. Thank you Robert,this was Informative but Simple to Read I’ve had small gardens for 4years now but have received seeds from friends,next year I’d like to buy some land stains could you recommend some one.

  12. Thanks great info ( for northern hemisphere),I’ve tried to download the Bible 3 times ,I love yr site & will be investing in some product,just getting $ together

  13. Your Robert in your team I just recently today sent you an email about the truth of your Bible and the things that you’ve done for me my comment is maybe my problem with the nosy neighbor is my plants are getting too big in relatively I should probably shorten them up if all possible is there a way that I can grow ruderalis I live in North Eastern Colorado and I grow outside which nobody rarely does out here I have good success but now the height is going to get me and bite me in the butt I don’t want to break any rules or laws I want to abide by everything I am 60 years old and my sister 67 and I have a medical marijuana license to cultivate 2 travel with and 2 be a caregiver at this time we only receive a small amount of money on Social Security we live in our own house and with any help is there a fund me page that could help me maybe get a small Greenhouse nothing extravagant I don’t have the resources to do that but I love growing marijuana when you read this if you’d like to talk to me about this or I’ll send you some pictures I would be happy to do that I’m very proud of what I do and I’ve learned most of it through the years of doing it but I find it right down to a science with your Bible once again my name is John for girl in my sister Joanie and our dog Mister Miss Piggy please send me a reply and maybe you guys can help me out with the laws and getting this so I don’t hurt anybody or do anything that would a person wouldn’t like I’m kind of confused when I talk right now because the growing season is going to start and I’m coming up empty-handed cuz I don’t know anything about growing in the greenhouse or indoor growing thank you for listening to me and please get back to me sincerely John

  14. Is it really as simple as breeding a Ruderalis plant with indica or sativa plant to have auto flower seeds or is there more to it. I’m asking cause I have tons of hemp seeds that I share with farmers and would like to put more use to them

  15. Good neighboring Robert. Your willingness to share understanding you have is noticeable and appreciated. I am glad you get to do what you love and share the love so far and wide. Cannabis is acceptable now in a way it has not recently been. We do have cause for celebration and the sound of gladness is growing stronger. You are offering help at your own expense and that is a wonderful share!


  17. Avis N Kim,

    Of course. Once you take a cutting a root that cutting you have a clone that is the same genetic age as the mother plant you took the cutting from.

    You can continue to take clone from that mother. C1, or flower the mother p[lant once the cutting has rooted into a clone.

    I generally top a plant, and root that cutting. I allow the mother plant to veg. as I determine that the cutting has rooted into a clone. At that point I can flower the mother plant, and allow the new clone to veg for a few weeks when I would top her again and root, and so on, etc…etc.

  18. I’ve been reading about different strains in hopes of deciding which one to plant. I’m confused about one thing (so far!). When a description says, for example, “Flowering: 63 days,” does it mean the plant will flower *at* 63 days or *for* 63 days?

  19. Hi Robert ,
    I have a few questions for you .
    I was given 2 seeds last year from a friend. She told me they were from a strain called “Tange” or “Tangie”. While in Durango Colorado, she had purchased a half-oz of Tange (Tangie) that had about 6 seeds. Both seeds germinated, but one was a male so I yanked it up. The other is maturing very well. Do you know if this strain is Sativa or Indica? What kind of high can I expect?

  20. hey ! thanks for the ruderalis info! very interesting and informational. i was trying to find thc and cbd levels for cannabis ruderalis all te over the web.. is it possible to tell the avarage precentage of CBD and THC levels in cannabis ruderalis?
    thank you!

  21. Q: do you have an estimate on how many total species there are of cannibas? Mainly trying to get an idea of how strains/species of both sativas and indicas???

  22. Thinking about these 3 different varieties of cannabis makes me say that God really makes a way to reach out to us. When the unique genetics of these three are combined, it creates a perfect marijuana strain to address all our health issues, and to suit our different environment. I enjoy learning more about marijuana.

  23. Spunky,

    Sorry. I really have not got a great answer for you. All good genetics are fairly pungent in smell when burned.

  24. I ordered the boosters but I don’t fully understand how to use them could you fully explain do I use 0.35 for every 2.5 galion of water in my tank help

  25. I needed to send you that liltte word to thank you very much as before for these awesome suggestions you have discussed above. It has been really seriously generous of people like you to convey without restraint all a lot of people would have offered for sale for an ebook to help make some cash for their own end, particularly considering that you could have tried it if you desired. These thoughts likewise acted as a good way to understand that the rest have the identical dream similar to mine to find out a great deal more concerning this problem. I think there are several more fun sessions in the future for those who looked over your website.

  26. I got it . Ruderalis , is not hemp only . Hardly . The strain has been perfected more each year . Auto flower , autofem , auto seed , mighty mite , snowstorm are the way to get it near you . It’s the future . Embrace . I just located in CO some alaskan thunder . Magnificient ! Taste and density top notch . Covered in gold/red hairs . Looking forward to trying afganistan/ruderalis cross strain .

  27. Cannabis Ruderalis , Is this the source for alaskan smoke ? Such as Matanuska TF ? Here in colorado we are moving fast . So does alaskan varities , correct ? Can northern strains be culivated with good results ? We are dying to know .

    • I once crossed a white widow x blueberry sativa x ruderralis and i got a sexy 5’7″ish plants and a whopping 2.7 lbs of purple sticky reddish gooey buds. Not nine months but five and a half months.i fed them well with alaskan fish fertalizers and feather and bat guano. Nice fat little foot balls hanging every wheres. Now im stuck with some stupid crap that isnt growing to well. Ive been growing since i was 9 yrs old. I have two older brothers that grew massively atvone time or two south of coos bay , oregon. Back in the 50’s/60’s era.

    • Wow love this, you have put so much interesting information in layman’s terms. It is the first article I have read that I can make since out of. Just wanted to say Thank You Thank you very much. And if you cant tell I am a newbie to growing